Saturday, 19 December 2015

What Is Distribution?
  •  What part of the supply chain is distribution? Distribution is the third part of the chain.
  • What is distribution often referred to as? Distribution is sometimes referred to as the 'invisible art' as it is a process known only to those within the industry and it is never usually written about.
  • What does 'vertical integration' mean when discussing distribution?  Vertical integration is where the three stages: production, distribution and exhibition are under the control of one company which sees them as part of a large process instead of individuals.
  • Why isn't 'vertical integration' so common in the independent sector? Vertical integration doesn't commonly happen in the independent film sector as producers don't usually have long term links with distributors; who similarly have no links with exhibitors.
  • What three stages are involved in the independent sector?  Licensing, marketing and logistics are part of the independent sector.
  • What is licencing? The process where a distributer requires legal rights to exploit a film.
  • What are the two levels of licencing? International Distribution and Local Distribution.
  • What is the advantage of being a major US studio? US studios have their own distribution offices in all major territories.
  • What three different types of rights can you acquire on a local level? Theatrical rights (cinema) Video rights (video and exploration) and TV rights.
  • What are royalties? Royalties are paid to the producer by the distributors. Royalties are taken from the profit the film makes. This profit is then equally shared to the producer for theatrical leg, payback higher royalties, broadcast rights, and lower for video and DVD.
  • What is the most effective way to increase interest in a film? Releasing the film in a theatrical way (meaning in cinemas) is the best way, however it should also be well marketed.
  • How long does it take for a film to reach 'free to air' TV? It takes two years for a film to be shown on television after being released in cinemas.
  •  What are the two key questions surrounding the marketing of a film? 'When?' and 'How?'
  • What day are films typically released on? Films are typically released on Fridays in the UK.
  • What will a distributor look at before releasing a film on a Friday? Distributors will look at the film release schedule and see which Friday has the least amount of film releases before they make a decision.
  • What is a 'light' week in terms of distribution? A light week is where there are only a few films due to be released.
  • What does it mean to 'position' a film distinctively? Positioning a film distinctively is where the distributors make sure that they avoid releasing their film at the same time as a film including similar traits like themes, subject matter etc.
  • Why has this become increasingly difficult in the UK? In the past there has been almost 10 new releases a week scheduled, so it makes it difficult to find a prime time to release.
  • What are P&A? P&A are the costs of print and distribution.
  • How much can P&A cost? The P&A can range from less than £100,000 to 1 million for release of film in the UK.
Marketing - Prints And Adverts
  • Typically how many prints will a 'specialised' film have? A specialised film will have less than 10 prints.
  • How many will mainstream films have? A mainstream film will have over 200 prints.
  • What is a key factor in developing the profile of a film? Press Response
  • How else can awareness of a film be raised? Advertising a film in magazines, newspapers, on the radio and cinema posters help build awareness.
  • Why is distribution in the UK seen as risky? The cost of print for advertisement is high in the UK.
  • Why are companies looking towards viral marketing? Marketing and advertisement are at a low cost and it is effective.
  • What are the benefits of a 'talent visit'? It wins significant editorial coverage for support with release.
  • In the pre digital film age what was a distributor responsible for? A distributor was responsible for the transportation of films to the cinemas across the UK.
  • How much does a 35mm print typically cost? It usually costs £1,000, however if it is subtitled it would be double the price.
  • How many reals is a typical feature print? 5 or 6.
  • Why do 35mm prints get damaged? They go through so many different projectors they end up getting damaged. 
  • Where are prints stored? UK's Central Print warehouse in West London.
  • How long did a theatrical release used to last? Theatrical release used to last  around 6 months.
Digital Distribution
  • When did digital distribution begin in the UK? Digital distribution began in the UK towards the end of 2005.
  • Name two advantages of digital distribution? It is a cheaper way to distribute and it is easier to transport as it can be done through computer files or a USB; instead of being delivered on film by delivery vans.
  • Which countries adopted digital distribution early and why? China and Brazil...
  • How many screens were digital in 2005 and how many are now? 211 in 2005 in the UK...
  • Why has digital distribution radically altered the operating model of distributors? Digital distribution radically altered the operating model of distributors due to the low cost of film copies and digital distribution providing a greater flexibility in distribution.
  • What has happened to the typical release period for a film? When a film is still being exhibited in cinemas, it is available to pre order on DVD or Blu-ray.
  • What is a loss leader and why are companies using the Cinema as a potential loss leader? A loss leader is where a product is sold below its market cost to attract customers. Companies use the cinema to do this as it attracts a large audience so they will therefore want to see the product. This helps as a large number of people go to the cinema at least once or regularly.

Wednesday, 16 December 2015

25 facts about Mad Max: Fury Road

1: The filming stopped due to the attacks on September 11th in New York and the Iraq war. 
2: The film was going to be in 3D, as well as filmed crew-free in Namibia. This was changed and filmed in multiple formats.
3: Filming way delayed 3 times. 1st was the Iraq war, 2nd was the filming of Happy Feet and 3rd was the rainfall in the Australian outback. 
4: Filming first concluded in 2013.
5: They had to go back and film additional scenes in November 2013.
6: Warner Bros panicked and insisted someone wrote a script in 2010.
7: All principle cast members signed up to be in the film in 2010. 
8: The film was originally going to be produced in New South Wales (Australia) however unexpected rainfall caused them to change location.
9: $41.9 million was spent on advertising the film.
10: The crew spent a total of 10 months in Namibia. 
11: The budget for the film was $150 million.
12: It cost a total of $153,629,485 to create the film.
13: The films certificate is 15.
14: The duration of the film is 120 minutes.
15: IMDb's rated the film 8.2 out of 10.  
16: The original actor in the film was going to be Mel Gibson.
17: Charlize Theron shaved her head for her role of Furiosa; causing her to wear a wig for her role in 'A Million Ways to Die in the West'.
18: $7.5 million was spent on advertising in 957 nations which was across 42 different networks.
19: The film was shot in sequence, which is rare, and the storyboards were completed before the script was made.
20: Charlize Theron and Tom Hardy did not get along during the making of the movie and they ended up not speaking at all on set.
21: Rosie Huntington-whitely said it was harder to film Fury Road than Transformers.
22: George Miller likes to make it clear to audience members that the film isn't a CGI film.
23: Mad Max: Fury Road was released 30 years after the last film Mad Max: Beyond Thunderdome.
24: Over 80% of the effects seen in the film are real effects, stunts, makeup art and sets.
25: Furiosa has part of her left arm missing and in order to achieve the effect, Theron wore a prosthetic and green sleeve during filming. The visual effects team then painted out, adding in a central mechanical piece where necessary.

Monday, 14 December 2015

Representations of Age in TV Dramas:

Representation of middle aged people:
Middle aged people (30-50s) are seen as hard workers who have full time jobs as well as managing families and a house. They are seen as less in touch with technology and the younger generations.

Patrick Jane- The Mentalist:
Patrick Jane, although being around the age of 30, is shown to be traditional through his love for tea, his wisdom in areas about life, and his lack of interest in technology. This is similar to an older person, as they don’t understand technology as much as the younger generation, and in an episode he asks Van Pelt to "bigify" something on the computer which the younger generation would know as zoom in. He doesn’t get involved in police chases, and tends to stay away from the violence (until killing Red John).
Ashley Marin- Pretty Little Liars:
Ashley Marin, Hanna's mother, is shown as a workaholic during the first few seasons of PLL. She worked at the bank of Rosewood before getting fired for stealing as herself and Hanna ran into family financial issues. Ashley and Hanna's father, Tom, got a divorce which goes against the stereotype that middle aged women should be in a committed relationship and running a well functioned family. Middle aged women are stereotypically seen as unattractive, however this is proven wrong as Ashley spends multiple nights hooking up with multiple men.

Regional Identity:

Doc Martin Essay:

Tuesday, 1 December 2015

Representation of Sexuality in TV Dramas.

American TV Dramas:

Heterosexuality: The Vampire Diaries: Elena and Damon.

In this clip we see heterosexuality being represented by Elena and Damon. Heterosexuality is seen as the preferred form of sexuality as it is the most traditional (involving a male and female). The use of camera angles such as two shots show the couple in the frame together; representing their relationship. The uplifting rhythm further emphasises their relationship by suggesting it is happy and healthy. Damon supports the idea of the stereotypical male in a heterosexual relationship by dressing in a suit with this hair slicked back; along with the direct eye contact he has with Elena to create romantic chemistry between them. The dialogue between them is about marriage and how Damon loves Elena so much that he would turn himself from a vampire to a human to be with her.

Homosexuality: Pretty Little Liars: Emily and Maya.
In this clip we see homosexuality being represented by Emily and Maya. Homosexuality is a form of sexuality involving two members of the same sex in a relationship. Emily has been openly gay for a while, whereas Maya hasn't. Maya's parents aren't supportive of her being in a relationship with Emily as they are very traditional and expect her to be in a heterosexual relationship. This causes them to move away from Rosewood. In this clip we see the effort Maya has gone to so Emily can see how much she loves her. The lighting in this clip is done by candlelight which gives off a romantic and sexy atmosphere. The camera angles of two shots show the couple in the frame together as they slow dance and over the shoulder shots represent their facial expressions (mainly Emily) as Maya expresses her feelings and also by decorated the room; so they have alone time with no one interrupting.

Bisexuality: Pretty Little Liars: Emily and Paige/ Emily and Ben.
When the show first began, Emily was represented as a confused character. She was in a relationship with a boy named Ben, however she had kissed her friend Alison. After that, Emily became confused as to which sex she prefers. She ends up fully Lesbian after being in multiple relationships with other females. The music in this scene provides a lively energy to reflect on Emily and Ben's relationship. They are making out in a car which is seen as romantic by American teens.

British TV Dramas:

Heterosexuality: Skins: Effy and Freddie.

A low angle is used when Freddie first opens the door for Effy. The music in the scene is romantic and lively suggesting she has gone there to express her love. The low angle could have been used as a way to show how in a heterosexual relationship, the male is (stereotypically) dominant over the female and the female looks up towards him as females (stereotypically) find taller men more attractive. This is further emphasised when the angle switches to a high angle so the camera is looking down on Effy to show the dominance of Freddie. A close up is used during the sex scene between the couple to show the intimacy of their relationship and to emphasise the sexual tension.

Homosexuality: Coronation Street: Sophie and Sian.

In this scene we see Sophie and Sian together. Sian has just been dumped by her boyfriend and goes to Sophie for comfort. A close up shows the two girls as they hug; showing the intimacy between them. A close up is used again when we see Sophie leaning in to kiss Sian. This is done slowly to build tension between the characters and for the audience to feel tense as it is unexpected. The lighting in the room is dim which gives off a romantic vibe which Sophie is clearly feeling for Sian. However, after the kiss, Sian leaves in tears; implying she is confused as to what has just happened. A medium shot shows Sophie sitting down on her bed with guilt written across her face as she feels bad for kissing Sian after her breakup.